Beyond Dose Assessment: Using Risk with
Full Disclosure of Uncertainty
​in Public and Scientific Communication

Figure 1. Lifetime risk of cancer incidence from exposure to radiation

U.S. Environmental Progection Agency. EPA assessment of risk from radon in homes. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA;
EPA 402-R-03-003; 2003.

b  National Cancer Institute. I-131 dose/risk calculator for NTS Fallout (online). Available at:
c Berrington de González A, Mahesh M, Kim K-P, Bhargavan M, Lewis R, Mettler F, Land C. Projected cancer risks from computed tomographic scans performed in the United States in 2007. Arch Intern Med 169:2071-2077; 2009. [Adjusted for difference in risk between exposure to x rays and high-energy gamma rays using radiation effectiveness factors (REF) from Kocher DC, Apostoaei AI, Hoffman FO, Radiation effectiveness factors for use in calculating probability of causation of radiogenic cancers. Health Phys 89:3-32; 2005.]
d  National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Limitation of exposure to ionizing radiation. Bethesda, MD; National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements; NCRP Report No. 116; 1993.
e  National Research Council. Health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; BEIR VII - Phase II; 2006.

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