Quantifying the Uncertainty in Exposure, Dose, and Risk

Kwon D, Hoffman FO, Moroz BE, Simon SL. 2015. Bayesian dose-response analysis for epidemiological studies with complex uncertainty in dose estimation. Statist Med Published online by John Wiley and Sons Ltd: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sim.6635/full. (Download)

Land CE, Kwon D, Hoffman FO, Moroz B, Drozdovitch V, Bouville A, Beck H, Luckyanov N, Weinstock RN, Simon SL. 2015. Accounting for shared and unshared dosimetric uncertainties in the dose-response for ultrasound-detected thyroid nodules following exposure to radioactive fallout. Radiat Res 183; 159-173.

Simon S, Hoffman FO, Hofer E. 2015. The two-dimensional Monte Carlo: a new methodologic paradigm for dose reconstruction for epidemiological studies.  Radiat Res 183; 27-41.

Simon SL, Kwon D, Hoffman FO, Moroz BE, Beck HL, Drozdovitch V, Bouville A, Land CE. “Methodologic Innovations in Radiation Dose and Risk Assessment: Case Study of Thyroid Disease Following Radiation Exposure in Kazakhstan.”  Presentation to the Scientific Program of the Radiation Research Society Conference on Radiological Health. September 2014.


Kwon D, Hoffman FO, Moroz B, Simon S.  Bayesian dose-response analysis for epidemiological studies with complex uncertainty in dose estimation. (2014). Published online by Cornell University Library:  http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.0849v1.   2 Sep 2014. (Download​)


Gale RP, Hoffman FO. 2013. Communicating cancer risk from radiation exposures: nuclear accidents, total body radiation and diagnostic procedures. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 48:1; 2-3.

Preston, R Julian; Boice Jr, John D; Brill, A Bertrand; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Conolly, Rory; Hoffman, F Owen; Hornung, Richard W; Kocher, David C; Land, Charles E; Shore, Roy E; Woloschak, Gayle E. Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.  J. Radiol. Prot. 33:573-588; 2013.

NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements). 2012. Uncertainties in the Measurement of Radiation Risks and Probability of Causation. NCRP Report No. 171. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, MD.


NCRP  (National Council for Radiation Protection and Measurements). 2009. Uncertainties in Internal Radiation Dose Assessment. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Bethesda, MD. 

Kocher, D.C., Apostoaei, A.I., Henshaw, R.W., Hoffman, F.O., Schubauer-Berigan, M.K., Stancescu, D.O., Thomas, B.A., Trabalka, J.R., Gilbert, E.S., Land, C.E. 2008. Interactive Radioepidemiological Program (IREP): A web-based tool for estimating probability of causation/assigned share of radiogenic cancers. Health Physics 95(1):119-147.


Li Y, Guolo A, Hoffman FO, Carroll RJ. Shared uncertainty in measurement error problems, with application to Nevada Test Site fallout data. Biometrics 63:1226-1236; 2007.


Hoffman, F.O., Ruttenber, A.J., Apostoaei, A.I., Carroll, R.J., Greenland, S. 2007. The Hanford Thyroid Disease Study: An alternative view of the findings. Health Physics 92(2):99 –111.

Kocher, D.C., Apostoaei, A.I., Hoffman, F.O.  2005. Radiation effectiveness factors for use in calculating probability of causation of radiogenic cancers.  Health Physics 89(1):3-32.


Apostoaei, A.I., Thomas, B.A., Hoffman, F.O. 2003. Total risk of cancer from ingestion and inhalation of multiple radionuclides. Health Physics, 84(6): S244-S245.

Jones, D., Domotor, S., Higley, K., Kocher, D.C., and Bilyard, G. 2003. Principles and Issues in Radiological Ecological Risk Assessment, J. Environ. Radioact. 66, 19.

Kocher, D.C. and Griem, H. 2002. "An Approach to Comparative Assessments of Potential Health Risks from Exposure to Radionuclides and Hazardous Chemicals." Environ. Int. 27, 663

Kocher, D.C. 1999. “Regulation of Public Exposures to Radionuclides and Hazardous Chemicals – Seeking Common Ground.” Radiat. Prot. Manage. 16, 23.

Thiessen, K.M., Hammonds, J.S., Lewis, C.J., Hoffman, F.O., and White, E.I. 1996. Screening Method for the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. A Task 7 Report. ChemRisk, State of Tennessee. April 1996.

Hoffman, F.O., Blaylock, B.G., Frank, M.L., and Thiessen, K.M. 1993. A risk-based screening approach for prioritizing contaminants and exposure pathways at Superfund sites. Environ. Monitoring and Assessment 28:221-237.

Kocher D.C., and Hoffman, F.O. 1993. “Regulation of Carcinogens: The Problem and a Solution,” ORNL Review 26, 22.

Kocher, D.C., and Hoffman, F.O. 1991. “Regulating Environmental Carcinogens: Where Do We Draw the Line?” Environ. Sci. Technol. 25.