IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 2012. Report of the international peer review of the radiation exposure of the public in French Polynesia arising from French atmospheric nuclear tests: September 2009 – July 2010. Vienna, Austria.


Land C.E., Bouville A., Apostoaei A.I., Simon S.L. 2010.  Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands Health Phys. 99(2):201–215.


Kocher, D.C., Apostoaei, A.I., and Hoffman, F.O. 2009.  Assessment of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risks from Exposure to Tritium in Groundwater near Beam Dump East at SLAC National Acceleratory Laboratory, SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., Report, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

Kocher, D.C. 2009.  Evaluation of Generic 3X Upper Bound Factor Used in Reconstructing External Gamma Doses to Military Participants at Atmospheric Nuclear Weapon Tests, DTRA-TR-09-14, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia.


Hoffman FO, Ruttenber AJ, Greenland S, Carroll RJ. Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. JAMA 296(5):513; 2006.

Lyon JL, Alder SC, Bishop Stone M, Scholl A, Reading JC, Holubkov R, Sheng X, White  Jr G L, Hegmann K T, Anspaugh L, Hoffman F O, Simon S L, Thomas B, Carroll R, Meikle A W. Thyroid Disease Associated with Exposure to the Nevada Nuclear Weapons Test Site Radiation: A reevaluation based on corrected dosimetry and examination data. Epidemiology 17: 604-614; 2006.

Simon, S., Anspaugh, L., Hoffman, O., Scholl, A. Stone, M.., Thomas, B. Lyon, J. 2004 Update of dosimetry for the Utah Thyroid Cohort Study.  Rad. Research 165: 208-222; 2006.


Apostoaei, A.I. 2005. Testing prediction capabilities of an I-131 terrestrial transport model by using measurements collected at the Hanford Nuclear Facility. Health Physics 88(5): 439-458 (Abstract Available)

Lyon, J., Alder, S., Stone, M., Anspaugh, L, Holubkov, R., Hoffman, O., Hegmann, K., Meikle, W., Reading, J., Scholl, A., Sheng, X., Simon, S., Thomas, B., White, G., 2005. Thyroid Disease Associated with Exposure to the Nevada Test Site Radiation – A Reevaluation Based on Corrected Dosimetry and Examination of Data. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161 (Suppl):S1- S152. 2005. (PDF Available)

Apostoaei, A.I., Thomas, B.A., Hoffman, F.O. 2003. Total risk of cancer from ingestion and inhalation of multiple radionuclides. Health Physics, 84(6): S244-S245.

National Research Council. 2003. A Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. (Download)

Reed, E.W., Thiessen, K.M., Hoffman, F.O., Apostoaei, A.I. 2003. Comparison of doses and risks obtained from dose reconstructions for historical operations of federal facilities that supported the development, production, or testing of nuclear weapons. Health Physics, 84(6):687-697. (Abstract Available)

Apostoaei, A.I. 2002. Transfer of risk between populations applied to estimating probability of cancer causation. Health Physics, 82(6):S188-S189.

Hoffman F.O., Apostoaei A.I., Thomas, B.A. 2002. A perspective on public concerns about exposure to fallout from the production and testing of nuclear weapons. Health Physics, 82(5):736–748. (Abstract Available)

Mallick, B., Hoffman, F.O., and Carroll, R.J. 2002. Semiparametric regression modeling with mixtures of Berkson and classical error, with application to fallout from the Nevada Test Site. Biometrics, 58:13-20. (abstract available)

Apostoaei, A.I., Nair, S.K., Thomas, B.A., Lewis, C.J., Hoffman, F.O., and Thiessen, K.M. 2000. External Exposure to Radionuclides Accumulated in the Shoreline Sediments with an Application to the Lower Clinch River. Health Physics, 78(6):700-710. (Abstract Available)

Kocher, D.C. 2000. Occupational Radiation Protection, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to Intakes of Radionuclides, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to External Sources of Radiation. Book Reviews, Health Phys. 78, 567

Nair, S.K., Apostoaei, A.I., and Hoffman, F.O. 2000. A Radioiodine Speciation, Deposition, and Dispersion Model with Uncertainty Propagation for the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. Health Physics, 78(4):394-413. (Abstract Available)

Apostoaei, A.I., Burns, R.E., Hoffman, F.O., Ijaz, T., Lewis, C.J., Nair, S.K., Widner, T.E. 1999. Iodine-131 Releases from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1944-1956)--An Assessment of Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Potential Excess Risks of Thyroid Cancer. Tennessee Department of Health, Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vols. 1 and 1A, The Report of Project Task 1.

Apostoaei, A.I., Blaylock, B.G., Caldwell, B., Flack, S., Gouge, J.H., Hoffman, F.O., Lewis, C.J., Nair, S.K., Reed, E.W., Thiessen, K.M., Thomas, B.A., and Widner, T.E. 1999. Radionuclides Released to the Clinch River from White Oak Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation—An Assessment of Historical Quantities Released, Off-site Radiation Doses, and Health Risks. Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vols. 4 and 4A. The Report of Project Task 4. Tennessee Department of Health, Oak Ridge Health Studies, Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction.

Hoffman, F.O. 1999. Advances in environmental dose reconstruction. ASA Conference on Radiation and Health. June 14-17, 1998. Radiation Research 151:108.

Apostoaei, A.I., Burns, R.E., Hoffman, F.O., Ijaz, T., Lewis, C.J., Nair, S.K., and Widner, T.E. 1998. Iodine-131 releases from radioactive lanthanum processing at the X-10 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee - An assessment of historical quantities released, off-site radiation doses, and potential excess risks of thyroid cancer. Oak Ridge Health Studies, Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. March 1998.

Hoffman, F.O., Hammonds, J.S., Apostoaei, A.I., Blaylock, B.G., Thomas, B.A., Thiessen, K.M. 1998. Estimation of Health Risks Based on Revised Estimates of HEDR Doses for Maximum Representative Individuals Consuming Fish and Waterfowl from the Columbia River: An Evaluation of HEDR Reports on the Columbia River Pathways. Report prepared for the National Opinion Research Center. ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.

Thiessen, K.M., Gouge, J.H., Hoffman, F.O., Apostoaei, A.I., Thomas, B.A., Lewis, C.J., Blaylock, B.G., Caldwell, B., Widner, T.E., Flack, S., Nair, S.K., and Reed, E.W. 1998. Radionuclides Released to the Clinch River from White Oak Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation – An Assessment of Historical Quantities Released, Off-Site Radiation Doses, and Health Risks. Oak Ridge Health Studies, Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction.

Hammonds, J.S., Hoffman, F.O., Apostoaei, A.I., Thiessen, K.M., Lewis, C.J., Blaylock, B.G., Caldwell, B., Flack, S., Nair, S.K., Reed, E.W., Thomas, B.A., and Widner, T.E. 1997. Radionuclides released from White Oak Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation to the Clinch River: A reconstruction of historical quantities released, off-site doses, and health risks. Oak Ridge Health Studies, Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. November 1997. 

Hoffman, F.O., Apostoaei, A.I., Nair, S.K., Widner, T.E., and Burns, R.E. 1996. First Iteration Dose and Health Risk Assessment for 131I from X-10 Radioactive Lanthanum Processing. Oak Ridge Health Studies, Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. State of Tennessee.

Hoffman, F.O., Simon, S.L., and Thiessen, K.M. 1996. The Role of Uncertainty Analysis in Dose Reconstruction and Risk Assessment. 31st Annual Meeting of the NCRP. 107-134.

Kocher, D.C., and Hoffman, F.O. 1996. Comment on “An approach for balancing health and ecological risks at hazardous waste sites". Risk Analysis 16(3):295-297.

Apostoaei, A.I., Hoffman, F.O., and Nair, S.K. 1995. Screening Calculation to estimate the transfer factor for 131I from air to pasture to milk of cows and goats. Report prepared for the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project. December 1995.

Thiessen, K.M., Hoffman, F.O., Hammonds, J.S., and White, E.I. 1995. A review of the preliminary screening analysis carried out during the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. ChemRisk, State of Tennessee, August, 1995.

Hoffman, F.O. 1993. Peer Review of HEDR Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. PNWD-21 HEDR UC-000.

Hoffman, F.O. 1993. The Role of Risk Estimation in Dose Reconstruction. Oak Ridge Health Study Bulletin Vol. 2:2.

Hoffman, F.O., Blaylock, B.G., Frank, M.L., and Thiessen, K.M. 1993. A risk-based screening approach for prioritizing contaminants and exposure pathways at Superfund sites. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 28:221-237.

Kocher, D.C., and Hoffman, F.O. 1991. Regulating environmental carcinogens: where do we draw the line? Environmental Science and Technology 25: 1986-1989.

Estimating Present Day Health Risks from Past Exposure
​to Chemicals and Radionuclides